ANNEX B – Chronology of the Recent History of Kurdistan

1639—Partition of Kurdistan by the demarcation of the border between the Ottoman and Iranian Empires in the Treaty of Kasr-I Shirin.

1806—Baban uprising.

1846–1947—Bedirhan uprising.

1879—Nehri uprising in Şemzînan under the leadership of Sheikh Ubeydullah.

1915—Genocide of Armenians and Assyrians begins.

August 10, 1920—Treaty of Sèvres, which envisages independence for both Kurdistan and Armenia. It is never ratified.

1923—Mahmud Barzanji revolts.

July 24, 1923—Peace Treaty of Lausanne and foundation of the Republic of Turkey.

1925—Sheikh Said uprising.

June 29, 1925—Execution of Sheikh Said.

1926–1932—Ararat uprising.

1936–1938—Dersim uprising under the leadership of Seyid Riza. Bombardment of Dersim.

January 22, 1946—Proclamation of the Republic of Kurdistan in Mahabad, with Ghazi Mohammed as president. The Republic only exists until December 16, 1946.

March 30, 1947—Ghazi Mohammed is hanged.

1975—Algiers Agreement between Iran and Iraq. The KDP is forced to capitulate.

May 16, 1988—Poison gas attack by Saddam Hussein’s army kills five thousand people in the Kurdish town of Halabja.

1991—Creation of the Iraqi Kurdistan parliament in South Kurdistan.

Since 1991—Popular uprisings ( Serhildan).

February 15, 1999—Abdullah Öcalan is kidnapped from Nairobi, Kenya, in a NATO operation.

April 18, 1999—Kurdish HDP is successful in the municipal elections.

2003—Iraqi Kurdistan becomes a federal state in Iraq.

March 2009—The Kurdish DTP scores a major success in municipal elections.

Beginning April 2009—Arrest of more than 1,400 DTP members and voters.

November 2009—The DTP is banned.

August 2014—ISIS attacks Sinjar. The YPJ/YPG and the HPG rush to liberate Sinjar from ISIS.

September 13, 2014—ISIS begins the siege of Kobani. On January 27, 2015, Kobani is taken back.

October 10, 2015—Ankara bombings kill ninety-seven people and injure more than four hundred at a peace rally for the resolution of the Kurdish question.

December 2015 through the first half of 2016—In response to a campaign for “democratic autonomy,” the Turkish state unleashes a monstrous wave of state terror. Curfews are declared in Sur, Diyarbakır, Cizre, Silopi, as well as in Mardin and Hakkari. Cities are bombed by the Turkish army; the old town of Amed (Diyarbakır) is completely destroyed. More than two hundred people are killed in Amed alone.

October 2016—Mayors and many members of parliament, including the cochairs of HDP, are arrested.

January 2018—Turkey occupies Efrin in North-Syria.

October 2019—Turkey occupies Serê Kanîyê (Ras al-Ayn).

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